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دستورات لینوکس فدورا

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مهمون يكي دو روزه

Joined: 09 May 2008
Posts: 34
Location: tehran

PostPosted: Tue Nov 25, 2008 8:44 pm    Post subject: دستورات لینوکس فدورا Reply with quote


با اینکه بسیار پیگیر منبع آموزشی برای لینوکس فدورا 6 هستم ولی کتابی که تمامی دستورات لینوکس فدورا 6 را داشته باشه پیدانکردم شما دوستان کتابی می تونید معرفی کنید .
چون که باید یک جزوه کامل از دستورات لینوکس برای درس سیستم عامل مدیریت شبکه تهیه کنم .
سایتی هم که به زبان فارسی همه دستورات را داشته باشد پیدا نکردم.

البته کتاب آموزش گام به گام سیستم عامل لینوکس نوشته آقای عباس نژاد ،کتاب خوبی است اما همه دستورات را ندارد . با تشکر
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بي تو هرگز

Joined: 26 Nov 2004
Posts: 3067
Location: Tehran

PostPosted: Wed Nov 26, 2008 8:44 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

سلام . من یه Ebook زبان اصلی دارم که برای fedora هست اگه خواستی بگو . یه کاریش کنم .
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مهمون يكي دو روزه

Joined: 30 Jan 2009
Posts: 1

PostPosted: Fri Jan 30, 2009 11:59 am    Post subject: salam Reply with quote

اگر گیرتون اومد برام بفرستید!!!
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بي تو هرگز

Joined: 26 Nov 2004
Posts: 3067
Location: Tehran

PostPosted: Sun May 15, 2011 11:22 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Go to dir, execute command and return to current dir

pushd .
Put current dir on stack so you can popd back to it file searching

alias l='ls -l --color=auto'
quick dir listing

ls -lrt
List files by date. See also newest and find_mm_yyyy

ls /usr/bin | pr -T9 -W$COLUMNS
Print in 9 columns to width of terminal
find -name '*.[ch]' | xargs grep -E 'expr'
Search 'expr' in this dir and below. See also findrepo
find -type f -print0 | xargs -r0 grep -F 'example'
Search all regular files for 'example' in this dir and below
find -maxdepth 1 -type f | xargs grep -F 'example'
Search all regular files for 'example' in this dir
find -maxdepth 1 -type d | while read dir; do echo $dir; echo cmd2; done
Process each item with multiple commands (in while loop)

find -type f ! -perm -444
Find files not readable by all (useful for web site)

find -type d ! -perm -111
Find dirs not accessible by all (useful for web site)

locate -r 'file[^/]*\.txt'
Search cached index for names. This re is like glob *file*.txt

look reference
Quickly search (sorted) dictionary for prefix

grep --color reference /usr/share/dict/words
Highlight occurances of regular expression in dictionary archives and compression
gpg -c file
Encrypt file
gpg file.gpg
Decrypt file
tar -c dir/ | bzip2 > dir.tar.bz2
Make compressed archive of dir/
bzip2 -dc dir.tar.bz2 | tar -x
Extract archive (use gzip instead of bzip2 for tar.gz files)
tar -c dir/ | gzip | gpg -c | ssh user@remote 'dd of=dir.tar.gz.gpg'
Make encrypted archive of dir/ on remote machine
find dir/ -name '*.txt' | tar -c --files-from=- | bzip2 > dir_txt.tar.bz2
Make archive of subset of dir/ and below
find dir/ -name '*.txt' | xargs cp -a --target-directory=dir_txt/ --parents
Make copy of subset of dir/ and below
( tar -c /dir/to/copy ) | ( cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p )
Copy (with permissions) copy/ dir to /where/to/ dir
( cd /dir/to/copy && tar -c . ) | ( cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p )
Copy (with permissions) contents of copy/ dir to /where/to/
( tar -c /dir/to/copy ) | ssh -C user@remote 'cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p'
Copy (with permissions) copy/ dir to remote:/where/to/ dir
dd bs=1M if=/dev/sda | gzip | ssh user@remote 'dd of=sda.gz'
Backup harddisk to remote machine rsync (Network efficient file copier: Use the --dry-run option for testing)
rsync -P rsync:// file
Only get diffs. Do multiple times for troublesome downloads
rsync --bwlimit=1000 fromfile tofile
Locally copy with rate limit. It's like nice for I/O
rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~/public_html/'~/public_html'
Mirror web site (using compression and encryption)
rsync -auz -e ssh remote:/dir/ . && rsync -auz -e ssh . remote:/dir/
Synchronize current directory with remote one ssh (Secure SHell)
ssh $USER@$HOST command
Run command on $HOST as $USER (default command=shell)

ssh -f -Y $USER@$HOSTNAME xeyes
Run GUI command on $HOSTNAME as $USER
scp -p -r $USER@$HOST: file dir/
Copy with permissions to $USER's home directory on $HOST
ssh -g -L 8080:localhost:80 root@$HOST
Forward connections to $HOSTNAME:8080 out to $HOST:80
ssh -R 1434:imap:143 root@$HOST
Forward connections from $HOST:1434 in to imap:143
ssh-copy-id $USER@$HOST
Install $USER's public key on $HOST for password-less log in
wget (multi purpose download tool)

(cd dir/ && wget -nd -pHEKk
Store local browsable version of a page to the current dir
wget -c
Continue downloading a partially downloaded file
wget -r -nd -np -l1 -A '*.jpg'
Download a set of files to the current directory
wget ftp://remote/file[1-9].iso/
FTP supports globbing directly

wget -q -O- | grep 'a href' | head
Process output directly
echo 'wget url' | at 01:00
Download url at 1AM to current dir
wget --limit-rate=20k url
Do a low priority download (limit to 20KB/s in this case)
wget -nv --spider --force-html -i bookmarks.html
Check links in a file
wget --mirror
Efficiently update a local copy of a site (handy from cron) networking (Note ifconfig, route, mii-tool, nslookup commands are obsolete)
ethtool eth0
Show status of ethernet interface eth0
ethtool --change eth0 autoneg off speed 100 duplex full
Manually set ethernet interface speed
iwconfig eth1
Show status of wireless interface eth1
iwconfig eth1 rate 1Mb/s fixed
Manually set wireless interface speed

iwlist scan
List wireless networks in range

ip link show
List network interfaces
ip link set dev eth0 name wan
Rename interface eth0 to wan
ip link set dev eth0 up
Bring interface eth0 up (or down)

ip addr show
List addresses for interfaces
ip addr add brd + dev eth0
Add (or del) ip and mask (

ip route show
List routing table
ip route add default via
Set default gateway to

Lookup DNS ip address for name or vice versa

hostname -i
Lookup local ip address (equivalent to host `hostname`)

Lookup whois info for hostname or
ip address

netstat -tupl
List internet services on a system

netstat -tup
List active connections to/from system windows networking (Note samba is the package that provides all this windows specific networking support)

Find windows machines. See also findsmb
nmblookup -A
Find the windows (netbios) name associated with ip address
smbclient -L windows_box
List shares on windows machine or samba server
mount -t smbfs -o fmask=666,guest //windows_box/share /mnt/share
Mount a windows share
echo 'message' | smbclient -M windows_box
Send popup to windows machine (off by default in XP sp2) text manipulation (Note sed uses stdin and stdout. Newer versions support inplace editing with the -i option)
sed 's/string1/string2/g'
Replace string1 with string2
sed 's/\(.*\)1/\12/g'
Modify anystring1 to anystring2
sed '/ *#/d; /^ *$/d'
Remove comments and blank lines
sed ':a; /\\$/N; s/\\\n//; ta'
Concatenate lines with trailing \
sed 's/[ \t]*$//'
Remove trailing spaces from lines
sed 's/\([`"$\]\)/\\\1/g'
Escape shell metacharacters active within double quotes

seq 10 | sed "s/^/ /; s/ *\(.\{7,\}\)/\1/"
Right align numbers
sed -n '1000{p;q}'
Print 1000th line
sed -n '10,20p;20q'
Print lines 10 to 20
sed -n 's/.*<title>\(.*\)<\/title>.*/\1/ip;T;q'
Extract title from HTML web page
sed -i 42d ~/.ssh/known_hosts
Delete a particular line
sort -t. -k1,1n -k2,2n -k3,3n -k4,4n
Sort IPV4 ip addresses

echo 'Test' | tr '[:lower:]' '[:upper:]'
Case conversion

tr -dc '[:print:]' < /dev/urandom
Filter non printable characters

tr -s '[:blank:]' '\t' </proc/diskstats | cut -f4
cut fields separated by blanks

history | wc -l
Count lines set operations (Note you can export LANG=C for speed. Also these assume no duplicate lines within a file)
sort file1 file2 | uniq
Union of unsorted files
sort file1 file2 | uniq -d
Intersection of unsorted files
sort file1 file1 file2 | uniq -u
Difference of unsorted files
sort file1 file2 | uniq -u
Symmetric Difference of unsorted
join -t'\0' -a1 -a2 file1 file2
Union of sorted files
join -t'\0' file1 file2
Intersection of sorted files
join -t'\0' -v2 file1 file2
Difference of sorted files
join -t'\0' -v1 -v2 file1 file2
Symmetric Difference of sorted files math

echo '(1 + sqrt(5))/2' | bc -l
Quick math (Calculate φ). See also bc

echo 'pad=20; min=64; (100*10^6)/((pad+min)*8)' | bc
More complex (int) e.g. This shows max FastE packet rate

echo 'pad=20; min=64; print (100E6)/((pad+min)*8)' | python
Python handles scientific notation

echo 'pad=20; plot [64:1518] (100*10**6)/((pad+x)*8)' | gnuplot -persist
Plot FastE packet rate vs packet size

echo 'obase=16; ibase=10; 64206' | bc
Base conversion (decimal to hexadecimal)

echo $((0x2dec))
Base conversion (hex to dec) ((shell arithmetic expansion))

units -t '100m/9.58s' 'miles/hour'
Unit conversion (metric to imperial)

units -t '500GB' 'GiB'
Unit conversion (SI to IEC prefixes)

units -t '1 googol'
Definition lookup

seq 100 | (tr '\n' +; echo 0) | bc
Add a column of numbers. See also add and funcpy calendar

cal -3
Display a calendar

cal 9 1752
Display a calendar for a particular month year

date -d fri
What date is it this friday. See also day

[ $(date -d "tomorrow" +%d) = "01" ] || exit
exit a script unless it's the last day of the month

date --date='25 Dec' +%A
What day does xmas fall on, this year

date --date='@2147483647'
Convert seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01 UTC) to date

TZ='America/Los_Angeles' date
What time is it on west coast of US (use tzselect to find TZ)

date --date='TZ="America/Los_Angeles" 09:00 next Fri'
What's the local time for 9AM next Friday on west coast US locales

printf "%'d\n" 1234
Print number with thousands grouping appropriate to locale

BLOCK_SIZE=\'1 ls -l
Use locale thousands grouping in ls. See also l

echo "I live in `locale territory`"
Extract info from locale database

LANG=en_IE.utf8 locale int_prefix
Lookup locale info for specific country. See also ccodes

locale | cut -d= -f1 | xargs locale -kc | less
List fields available in locale database recode (Obsoletes iconv, dos2unix, unix2dos)

recode -l | less
Show available conversions (aliases on each line)
recode windows-1252.. file_to_change.txt
Windows "ansi" to local charset (auto does CRLF conversion)
recode utf-8/CRLF.. file_to_change.txt
Windows utf8 to local charset
recode iso-8859-15..utf8 file_to_change.txt
Latin9 (western europe) to utf8
recode ../b64 < file.txt > file.b64
Base64 encode
recode /qp.. < file.qp > file.txt
Quoted printable decode
recode ..HTML < file.txt > file.html
Text to HTML

recode -lf windows-1252 | grep euro
Lookup table of characters

echo -n 0x80 | recode latin-9/x1..dump
Show what a code represents in latin-9 charmap

echo -n 0x20AC | recode ucs-2/x2..latin-9/x
Show latin-9 encoding

echo -n 0x20AC | recode ucs-2/x2..utf-8/x
Show utf-8 encoding CDs
gzip < /dev/cdrom > cdrom.iso.gz
Save copy of data cdrom
mkisofs -V LABEL -r dir | gzip > cdrom.iso.gz
Create cdrom image from contents of dir
mount -o loop cdrom.iso /mnt/dir
Mount the cdrom image at /mnt/dir (read only)
cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast
Clear a CDRW
gzip -dc cdrom.iso.gz | cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom -
Burn cdrom image (use dev=ATAPI -scanbus to confirm dev)
cdparanoia -B
Rip audio tracks from CD to wav files in current dir
cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom -audio -pad *.wav
Make audio CD from all wavs in current dir (see also cdrdao)
oggenc --tracknum='track' track.cdda.wav -o 'track.ogg'
Make ogg file from wav file disk space (See also FSlint)

ls -lSr
Show files by size, biggest last

du -s * | sort -k1,1rn | head
Show top disk users in current dir. See also dutop

du -hs /home/* | sort -k1,1h
Sort paths by easy to interpret disk usage

df -h
Show free space on mounted filesystems

df -i
Show free inodes on mounted filesystems

fdisk -l
Show disks partitions sizes and types (run as root)

rpm -q -a --qf '%10{SIZE}\t%{NAME}\n' | sort -k1,1n
List all packages by installed size (Bytes) on rpm distros

dpkg-query -W -f='${Installed-Size;10}\t${Package}\n' | sort -k1,1n
List all packages by installed size (KBytes) on deb distros

dd bs=1 seek=2TB if=/dev/null of=ext3.test
Create a large test file (taking no space). See also truncate

> file
truncate data of file or create an empty file monitoring/debugging

tail -f /var/log/messages
Monitor messages in a log file

strace -c ls >/dev/null
Summarise/profile system calls made by command

strace -f -e open ls >/dev/null
List system calls made by command

ltrace -f -e getenv ls >/dev/null
List library calls made by command

lsof -p $$
List paths that process id has open

lsof ~
List processes that have specified path open

tcpdump not port 22
Show network traffic except ssh. See also tcpdump_not_me

ps -e -o pid,args --forest
List processes in a hierarchy

ps -e -o pcpu,cpu,nice,state,cputime,args --sort pcpu | sed '/^ 0.0 /d'
List processes by % cpu usage

ps -e -orss=,args= | sort -b -k1,1n | pr -TW$COLUMNS
List processes by mem (KB) usage.
See also

ps -C firefox-bin -L -o pid,tid,pcpu,state
List all threads for a particular process

ps -p 1,2
List info for particular process IDs

last reboot
Show system reboot history

free -m
Show amount of (remaining) RAM (-m displays in MB)

watch -n.1 'cat /proc/interrupts'
Watch changeable data continuously

udevadm monitor
Monitor udev events to help configure rules system information (see also sysinfo) ('#' means root access is required)

uname -a
Show kernel version and system architecture

head -n1 /etc/issue
Show name and version of distribution

cat /proc/partitions
Show all partitions registered on the system

grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
Show RAM total seen by the system

grep "model name" /proc/cpuinfo
Show CPU(s) info

lspci -tv
Show PCI info

lsusb -tv
Show USB info

mount | column -t
List mounted filesystems on the system (and align output)

grep -F capacity: /proc/acpi/battery/BAT0/info
Show state of cells in laptop battery
dmidecode -q | less
Display SMBIOS/DMI information
smartctl -A /dev/sda | grep Power_On_Hours
How long has this disk (system) been powered on in total
hdparm -i /dev/sda
Show info about disk sda
hdparm -tT /dev/sda
Do a read speed test on disk sda
badblocks -s /dev/sda
Test for unreadable blocks on disk sda interactive

Line editor used by bash, python, bc, gnuplot, ...

Virtual terminals with detach
capability, ...

Powerful file manager that can browse rpm, tar, ftp, ssh, ...

Interactive/scriptable graphing

Web browser

xdg-open .
open a file or url with the registered desktop application
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